About Us

What is a Physiatrist?
Physicians trained in the specialty of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) are called Physiatrists (fizz eye' uh trists).  

Physiatry is the branch of medicine emphasizing the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders, particularly those of the neuromusculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and pulmonary systems, that may produce temporary or permanent impairment.  

Physiatry is unique among medical fields in that its area of expertise is the functioning of the whole patient, as compared with a focus on an organ system or systems.  

Physiatrists treat conditions of the bones, muscles, joints, brain, and nervous system, which can affect other systems of the body and limit a person's ability to function.   

The Physiatrist can help to improve a person's functional capabilities by medical treatment and organizing and integrating a program of rehabilitation therapy such as physical, occupational, speech therapies, psychological, social nursing, prosthetic, orthotic, engineering and vocational services.  

--Definition from Association of Academic Physiatrists and Canadian Association of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation--

Mission Statement

The mission of the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at the University of Saskatchewan is to provide excellent patient care, education, and research in the field of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, leading to improvement in function, independence, health, and quality of life for each individual served. 

We provide holistic interdisciplinary assessment and rehabilitation services to patients and families, and we are committed to advancing knowledge of the art and science of medical rehabilitation.



The Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) at the University of Saskatchewan offers clinical clerkship electives at both the Saskatoon City Hospital in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, and the Wascana Rehabilitation Centre in Regina, Saskatchewan. Our academic residency program operates out of both sites, allowing clerks a broad exposure to the daily responsibilities of academic physiatrists and residents.

Clerks who are interested in a career in PM&R or a complimentary specialty such as Neurology, Orthopedics, Rheumatology, Neurosurgery or Family Medicine are encouraged to apply. Students will have the opportunity to their history taking and physical exam skills in core PM&R domains such as musculoskeletal, neurological, acquired brain injury, stroke rehabilitation, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and prosthetics and orthotics and others. Acute care consults and rehabilitation inpatient ward exposure will provide a “day in the life of Physiatry” involving history, examination, diagnosis and treatment.  Neuromuscular assessment and diagnosis is provided in the department allowing the student exposure to nerve conduction studies (NCS) and needle electromyography (EMG)

And elective schedule will be created based on the clerks’ personal interests and basic physiatry learning objectives. A minimum of 1 week is required but up to 4 weeks is permitted. Both Regina and Saskatoon sites will provide a flexible elective. A combination of outpatient clinical, inpatient ward, consultation service, and formal teaching at the resident academic half day will make up the bulk of the rotation.

Please contact pmr@usask.ca for more information.

The University of Saskatchewan Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation is a provincial program that provides a flexible opportunity to take advantage of the best training opportunities in Saskatoon and Regina as well as some opportunities to experience one or more regional centers.

We have integrated support for research with access to research scientists in both cities. We have strong working relationships with neurosciences, rheumatology and orthopedics. Both centres have established services in the core rehabilitation areas of stroke, spinal cord injury, brain injury and amputation.

In Regina at Wascana Rehabilitation Centre, we have all core rehabilitation services on one site including inpatient and outpatient services, prosthetics and orthotics, specialized seating and services for children with such diagnoses as cerebral palsy and spina bifida. At Saskatoon City Hospital there are inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation services, in addition to two community physiatrists with a mix of musculoskeletal and electrodiagnostic medicine. There is the opportunity to work with off site pediatric subspecialists as well as teams managing cerebral palsy, spina bifida and other neuromuscular diseases in addition to orthotics and prosthetics. As there is currently no certified pediatric physiatrist in Saskatchewan, we have an affiliation agreement in place with the University of Calgary where we require and support one block of pediatric rehabilitation.

Our two tertiary rehabilitation centres in Saskatoon and Regina serve a provincial population of just over one million. We feel the single program distributed between both cities offers the best of flexibility, personalized attention and practical experience. There is excellent support from the College of Medicine to support this distributed model. We have a strong focus on neurological and musculoskeletal anatomy reinforced by five half days per year in the College of Medicine anatomy lab guided by an anatomist and physiatrist. We are building our expertise for integrating ultrasound into chemodenervation and musculoskeletal procedures. We have also initiated optional EMG and ultrasound teaching rounds in addition to our regular academic teaching program.

Please contact pmr@usask.ca for more information.



Welcome to the Division of Research page of the University of Saskatchewan Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Our Provincial Department serves persons of all ages with acquired brain injury, amputations, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, stroke, or disabilities secondary to any type of impairments. In keeping with our priorities, we aim to enhance service, learning, and patient function. We conduct collaborative interdisciplinary research in health/quality-of-life outcomes, pedagogy/medical education, clinical trials, Indigenous health, and healthcare quality improvement with community partners, medical students, and local, national, and international researchers.

The resident research program is co-facilitated by Drs. Katherine Knox and Darren Nickel. All our residents are required to complete at least one research project during their residency. This contributes to a culture of research in our department and advances scholarly activity. We aim to equip our residents to be keen and aware users of research literature and competent and responsible research partners.

Katherine Knox, MD, FRCPC

Associate Professor

Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

Saskatoon City Hospital

Saskatoon, SK, S7K 0M7



Darren Nickel, PhD

Research Associate

Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

Saskatoon City Hospital

Saskatoon, SK, S7K 0M7





This page contains some recent publications that members of our department have published.

Papers 2022-2023 

  • Calver R, Cudlip A, Dickerson CR, Mondal P, Butcher S, Kim SY. A comparison of isometric and isokinetic normalization methods for electromyographic data from sub-regions of supraspinatus and infraspinatus during dynamic tasks. Int Biomech. 2023; 10(1): 1-9. doi: 10.1080/23335432.2023.2210634.

  • Kassam F, Lim B, Afroz S, Boissonnault È, Reebye R, Finlayson H, Winston P. Canadian physicians’ use of intramuscular botulinum toxin injections for shoulder spasticity: a national cross-sectional survey. Toxins. 2023; 15(1): 58. doi: 10.3390/toxins15010058.

  • Kelly R, Leung G, Lindstrom H, Wunder S, Jaime CY. Virtual objective structured clinical examination experiences and performance in physical medicine and rehabilitation residency. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2022 Oct 1; 101(10): 947-53. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000001942.

Papers 2021-2022

  • Alavinia SM, Jetha A, Hitzig SL, McCauley D, Routhier F, Noonan VK, Linassi G, Farahani F, Omidvar M, Jeyathevan G, Craven BC. Development of employment indicators to advance the quality of spinal cord injury rehabilitation care: SCI-High Project. J Spinal Cord Med. 2021;44(sup1):S118-133. doi: 10.1080/10790268.2021.1955205.

  • Andrushko JW, Gould L, Renshaw DW, Forrester S, Kelly ME, Linassi G, Mickleborough M, Oates A, Hunter G, Borowsky R, Farthing JP. Ipsilesional motor cortex activation with high force unimanual handgrip contractions with the less-affected limb in participants with stroke. Neuroscience. 2022;483:82-94. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2021.12.011.

  • Essien SK, Kopriva D, Linassi AG, Zucker-Levin A. Trends of limb amputation considering type, level, sex and age in Saskatchewan, Canada 2006-2019: an in-depth assessment. Arch Public Health. 2022;80:10. doi: 10.1186/s13690-021-00759-1.

  • Essien S, Linassi AG, Farnan C, Collins K, Zucker-Levin A. The influence of primary and subsequent limb amputation on the overall rate of limb amputation in Saskatchewan, Canada, 2006-2019: a population-based study. BMC Surg. 2021;21: 385. doi: 10.1186/s12893-021-01381-2.

  • Essien SK, Linassi AG, Larocque M, Zucker-Levin A. Incidence and trends of limb amputation in First Nations and general population in Saskatchewan, 2006-2019. PLOS ONE. 2021;16(7): e0254543. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0254543.

  • Hitzig SL, Jeyathevan G, Farahani F, Noonan VK, Linassi G, Routhier F, Jetha A, McCauley D, Alavinia SM, Omidvar M, Craven BC. Development of community participation indicators to advance the quality of spinal cord injury rehabilitation: SCI-High Project. J Spinal Cord Med. 2021;44(sup1):S79-93. doi: 10.1080/10790268.2021.1955204.

  • Jeyathevan G, Jaglal SB, Hitzig SL, Linassi G, Mills S, Noonan VK, Anzai K, Clarke T, Wolfe D, Bayley M, Aslam L, Farahani F. Alavinia SM, Omidvar M, Craven BC. Conception and development of self-management indicators to advance the quality of spinal cord injury rehabilitation: SCI-High Project. J Spinal Cord Med. 2021;44(sup1):S94-S117. doi: 10.1080/10790268.2021.1961054.

  • Knox KB, Nickel D, Donkers SJ, Paul L. Perspectives on physiotherapy-guided online exercise for moderate-to-severe multiple sclerosis and implications post pandemic. Disabil Rehabil. doi: 10.1080/09638288.2022.2055159.

  • Saini A, Cochran C, Zucker-Levin A, Donkers SJ, Kumar P, Knox KB, MacPherson J, Salapa H, Levin MC. A tripartite knowledge translation program: innovative patient-centered approach to clinical research participation for individuals with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler Int. 2021. Article ID: 5531693. doi: 10.1155/2021/5531693.

  • Sarpong-Kumankomah S, Knox KB, Kelly ME, Hunter G, Popescu B, Nichol H, Kopciuk K, Ntanda H, Gailer J. Quantification of human plasma metalloproteins in multiple sclerosis, ischemic stroke and healthy controls reveals an association of haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes with age. PLoS ONE. 2021;17(1): e0262160. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0262160.

  • Tauh S, Nickel D, Thorpe L, Brown J, Linassi G. Perspectives on medical assistance in dying amongst persons with traumatic spinal cord injury: A qualitative study. Spinal Cord. 2022;60:465-469. doi: 10.1038/s41393-022-00793-y.

Papers 2020-2021

  • Bone MD, Arora T, Musselman KE, Lanovaz JL, Linassi GA, Oates AR. Investigating proactive balance control in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury while walking on a known slippery surface. Neurosci Lett. 2021 Apr 1;749:135744. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2021.135744.

  • Collins K, Linassi G, Zucker-Levin A. A focus group- and patient-driven study to understand patient and healthcare provider perspectives of services for amputees. Physiotherapy Canada. 2021;73(3), 244-251. doi: 10.3138/ptc-2019-0054.

  • Hodgkinson V, Lounsberry J, M’Dahoma S, Russell A, Benstead T, Brais B, Campbell C, Johnston W, Lochmuller H, McCormick A, Nguyen CT, O’Ferrall E, Oskoui M, Briemberg H, Bourque P, Botez S, Cashman N, Chapman K, Chrestian N, Crone M, Dobrowski P, Dojeiji S, Dowling JJ, Dupre N, Genge A, Gonorazky H, Grant I, Hasal S, Izenberg A, Kalra S, Katzberg H, Krieger C, Leung E, Linassi G, Mackenzie A, Mah JK, Marrero A, Massie R, Matte G, McAdam L, McMillan H, Melanson M, Mezei MM, O’Connell C, Pfeffer G, Phan C, Plamondon S, Poulin C, Rodrigue X, Schellenberg K, Selby K, Sheriko J, Shoesmith C, Smith G, Taillon M, Taylor S, Venance S, Warman-Chardon J, Worley S, Zinman L, Korngut L. The Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry 2010-2019: A decade of facilitating clinical research through a nationwide pan-neuromuscular disease registry. J Neuromuscul Dis. 2021;8(1):53-61. doi: 10.3233/JND-200538.

  • Inglis T, Banaszek D, Rivers CS, Kurban D, Evaniew N, Fallah N, Waheed Z, Christie S, Fox R, Mac-Thiong J-M, Ethans K, Ho C, Linassi AG, Ahn H, Attabib N, Bailey C, Fehlings MG, Fourney DR, Paquet J, Townson A, Tsai E, Cheng CL, Noonan VK, Dvorak MF, Kwon BK. In-Hospital Mortality for the Elderly Suffering Acute Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury. J Neurotrauma. 2020;37(21):2332-2342. doi: 10.1089/neu.2019.6912.

  • Saini A, Bach K, Poliakov I, Knox KB, Levin MC. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of spinal cord lesions in a cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis in Saskatchewan, Canada. Int J MS Care. 2021;23(2):47-52. doi: 10.7224/1537-2073.2019-081.

  • Sessford JD, Locke SR, Cary MA, Flora PK, Knox K, Brawley LR. Effect of group counseling plus tailored exercise on mobility function in multiple sclerosis. Int J MS Care. 2021;23(2):66-72. doi: 10.7224/1537-2073.2019-066. Won the Promise Award, which honours the Best Young Investigator Article in IJMSC in 2021.
  • Siemens M, Wunder S, Kraushaar J, Mortimer JA, Siddiqui M, Kane K. Hip surgery and radiology reporting for children with cerebral palsy prior to initiation of a hip surveillance program. J Pediatr Rehabil Med. 2021;14(2):257-263. doi:10.3233/PRM-201506.

Papers 2019-2020

  • Allin S, Shepherd J, Thorson T, Tomasone J, Munce S, Linassi G, McBride C, Jiancaro T, Jaglal S. Web-based health coaching for spinal cord injury: results from a mixed methods feasibility evaluation. JMIR Rehabil Assist Technol. 2020; 7(2):e16351. doi: 10.2196/16351.

  • Al-Sakran L, Marrie RA, Blackburn D, Knox K, Evans C. Impact of comorbidity on hospitalizations in individuals newly diagnosed with multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal population-based study. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020; 40:101955. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2020.101955.

  • Al-Sakran L, Marrie RA, Blackburn D, Knox K, Evans C. Association between disease-modifying therapies for multiple sclerosis and healthcare utilisation on a population level: a retrospective cohort study. BMJ Open. 2019; 9(11):e033599. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033599.

  • Al-Sakran L, Marrie RA, Blackburn D, Knox K, Evans C. Predictors of hospitalization in a Canadian MS population: a matched cohort study. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020; 40: doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2020.102028.

  • Arora T, Musselman K, Lanovaz J, Linassi G, Arnold C, Milosavljevic S, Oates A. Reactive balance responses to an unexpected slip perturbation in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury. Clin Biomech. 2020;78:105099. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2020.105099.

  • Donkers SJ, Nickel D, Paul L, Wiegers SR, Knox KB. Adherence to physiotherapy-guided web-based exercise for persons living with moderate to severe multiple sclerosis: a randomized-controlled pilot study. Int J MS Care. 2020;22:208-214. doi: 10.7224/1537-2073.2019-048.

  • Goulding FL, Evans CD, Knox KB, Lim HJ, Levin MC, Donkers SJ. Individualised behaviour change strategies for physical activity in multiple sclerosis (IPAC-MS): protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials. 2019; 20:664. doi: 10.1186/s13063-019-3768-7.

  • Kingston DC, Linassi AG, Zucker-Levin AR. Changes to stance limb peak, cumulative, and regional plantar foot forces among normal walking and three mobility aids in healthy older adults. Gait Posture. 2020; 81:96-101. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2020.07.015.

  • McIntyre A, Marrocco SL, McRae SA, Sleeth L, Hitzig S, Jaglal S, Linassi G, Munce S, Wolfe A scoping review of self-management interventions following spinal cord injury. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2020; 26:36-63. doi: 10.1310/sci2601-36.

  • Rassem M, Siddiqui M, Wunder S, Ganshorn K, Kraushaar J. Sexual health counselling in patients with spinal cord injury: Health care professionals’ perspectives. J Spinal Cord Med. 2022;45:280-286. doi: 10.1080/10790268.2020.1786322.

  • Reebye R, Finlayson H, May C, Satkunam L, Wein T, Miller T, Boulias C, O’Connell C, Bohorquez A, Dukelow S, Ethans K, Ismail F, Khalil W, Khan O, Lagnau P, McNeill S, Mills P, Sirois G, Winston P. Practical guidance for outpatient spasticity management during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic: Canadian Spasticity COVID-19 Task Force. Can J Neurol Sci. 2020;47(5):589-593. doi:10.1017/cjn.2020.104.

Papers 2018-2019

  • Arora T, Musselman KE, Lanovaz J, Linassi G, Arnold C, Milosavljevic S, Oates A. Walking stability during normal walking and its association with slip intensity among individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury. PM R. 2019; 11(3): 270-277. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2018.07.012.

  • Hodgkinson VL, Lounsberry J, Mirian A, Genge A, Benstead T, Briemberg H, Grant I, Hader W, Johnston WS, Kalra S, Linassi G, Massie R, Melanson M, O'Connell C, Schellenberg K, Shoesmith C, Taylor S, Worley S, Zinman L, Korngut L. Provincial Differences in the Diagnosis and Care of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Can J Neurol Sci. 2018 Nov; 45(6):652-659. doi: 10.1017/cjn.2018.311.
  • Knox KB, Saini A, Levin MC. The dilemma of when to stop disease-modifying therapy in multiple sclerosis: a narrative review and Canadian regional reimbursement policies. Int J MS Care. 2020; 22:75-84. doi: 10.7224/1537-2073.2018-107.


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Saskatoon Rehabilitation Centre
Saskatoon City Hospital 
701 Queen St 
Saskatoon SK 
S7K 0M7

Reception Tel: 306-655-8175 
Fax: 306-655-8813

Wascana Rehabilitation Centre
2180 - 23rd Avenue
Regina SK
S4S 0A5

Appointment Coordinator Tel: 306-766-5521 
Outpatient Clinic Nurse Tel: 306-766-5514 
Admin Assistant Tel: 306-766-5402 
Fax: 306-766-7442