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Uniform Procedures for Written Work and Referencing

Categories: MPT PT guidelines written work Physical Therapy

Updated on:

Document particulars:

Category: Academic
Responsibility: Academic Affairs
Authorization: Academic Affairs
Approval Date: Sept. 1, 2008
Amendment Date: Nov. 26, 2009
(Links updated July, 2016)

Important Note on Plagiarism and Copyright: Please review U. of S. guidelines available on usask website. Full acknowledgements of all sources are to be cited accurately. 

The procedures for preparing written work in the MPT program are outlined below. Alternate and or additional requirements for individual courses may be distributed by the course instructors. Specific requirements for the Major Project (P.Th. 992) are included in the second section of this document.

Course Assignments

Format Details (Text)

  1. Line spacing - The body of the text is to be double spaced. Footnotes, if used, should be single spaced and placed at the bottom of the page on which the footnote applies.
  2. Margins - All margins are to be 2.5cm (1 inch)
  3. Font size - 12 point
  4. Headings - Major headings shall be capitalized and bolded. The first level of subheading after a major heading shall be bolded and in title format. Second level subheadings shall be italicized and in title format.

    Text ...
    Subheading Number 1
    Text ...
    Subheading Number 2
    Text ...

  5. Title page - The title page shall contain the following information: full title, full name(s) of author(s), the School and the University’s name, the course for which the project is submitted, and the date of submission
  6. Length of report - The specific length for each assignment will be determined by the course instructor.
  7. Page numbering - all page numbers shall be placed in the bottom middle of the page
    1. Pagination of material prior to the main body of the text shall be in small roman numerals.
    2. Title page - do not display the page number of this page.
    3. Table of contents (if required)
    4. Main body of text. Arabic numerals will be used with the pagetarting with the introduction being the first page.
    5. References - page numbers follow continuously after the main textf the report
    6. Tables - page numbers follow continuously after the references.
    7. Figures - page numbers follow continuously after the tables

Reference Formatting Details

2.1       References in the text of the report

In-text citation:   References should be numbered consecutively as they appear in the text.  Enclose the numbers parenthesis and place them preceding punctuation.  Separate references with commas; do not insert a space between the comma and the subsequent number.  If three or more consecutively numbered reference are clustered, indicate the first and last reference in the series separated by a hyphen.  For direct quotes, include the page number in parenthesis after the reference number separated by a comma. 

References should be placed where they have most meaning.  A reference at the end of the sentence would indicate that the whole sentence can be attributed to the cited reference.  Cite the reference number in the text each time an author is mentioned, but each reference should appear only once in the reference list. 


Other qualitative studies have examined adjusting and coping (8), maintaining balance (9,10,12-16), and experiencing loss (3).

Bandura first defined self-efficacy as “the conviction that one can successfully execute the behavior required to produce the outcomes (10,p.79).”

Prochaska and Marcus (1994) stated:
… we are convinced that no matter what we do, the majority of people will relapse after any single attempt to overcome most chronic behaviour problems.  Our strategy is to recycle relapses and to help them take action more effectively on the next attempt (25,p.168).

2.2       References in the Reference List

2.2.1    References are listed in the reference section of the report and are   listed by number in the order that they appear in the text using the     ICMJE style of formatting

2.2.2    The ICMJE Style can be found at: International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).  Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Manuscript Preparation and Submission: Preparing a Manuscript for Submission to a Biomedical Journal [Internet] American College of Physicians, 190 N. Independence Mall West, Philadelphia, PA 19106-1572, USA, 2009 [updated 2008 Sept.; cited 2009 Sept 11]

The following “online textbook” provides models, examples, and explanation for each of the referencing type:
Patrias, K., Wendling, DL. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers 2nd ed [Internet] Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 [updated 2009 Jan 14; cited 2009 Sept. 11].

A one page reference can be found here.

2.2.3    If using RefWorks, you should select <<NLM (National Library of Medicine)>> as the bibliography.  This writing tool will generate your in text and reference list in the correct.  You may have to do some editing (page numbers, specialized citation types) but most of the work will be done automatically!


  1. Reference to tables in the text
    1. Tables shall be referred to in the text of the report in parentheses with the first letter of table capitalized and the number an Arabic numeral.
    The average age of the participants of the study was 67.4 years (SD = 5.7 years) and consisted of 62 percent women (Table 1). [In this example, more details of the demographic data from the study sample would be included in Table 1]

    For details of the demographic data for the study participants, refer to Table 1.
  2. Tables
    1. Tables are to be placed after the references.
    2. Each table shall be placed on a separate page.
    3. Each table shall have a table number and a title. The title should be descriptive enough such that the table can stand on its own and be understood.
    4. The title of the table shall be double spaced and placed above the table.
    5. Single spacing may be used for the information within the table.
    6. Font size for the title of the table and all of the information within the table shall be 12 point.


  1. Reference to figure in the text (see section 3.1.1 above)
  2. Figures
    1. Figures are to be placed after the Tables.
    2. Each figure shall be placed on a separate page.
    3. The title of the figure shall be double spaced and placed below the figure.
    4. Single spacing may be used for the information within the figure.
    5. Font size for the text within the figure should be a minimum of 10 point.


The requirement and/or content of appendices for any specific written assignment will be determined by the individual instructor. If required, the appendix number and tile should appear at the top of the first page of each appendix.

Additional Resources

Matthews JR, Bowen JM, Matthews RW. Successful scientific writing: A step- by-step guide for the biological and medical sciences. 2nd ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 2000
(catalogue number: R119.M28 2008)

Browner WS. Publishing and Presenting Clinical Research. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2006
(Catalogue number: R852.B778 2006)

Major Project (PTH 992)


Students will select an appropriate health science journal and follow the instructions regarding formatting, referencing and to authors provided by the journal.

Additional information may be added as an appendix at the discretion of the PTH 922 course instructor and must be deemed necessary for the understanding of the report. Additional tables and figures, beyond the number allowed for the report, may not be placed in an appendix.

Length of report

  1. The main body of the report should be between 15 and 20 pages. The main body of the report contains the introduction, methods, results, discussion and clinical message
  2. Up to five pages can be used for tables/figures (not counted in the 20 page limit)
  3. Limit the number of pages used for the appendices to the absolute minimum (see 1.13)


Resources for Writing available to Students at the University of Saskatchewan

In its new location on the first floor of the Main Library (Murray 142), the University Learning Centre’s Writing Help offers FREE one-to-one tutoring in academic writing to all U of S undergraduate and graduate students. 

Drop-in or online tutoring – can be received at any stage of the writing process; there is no requirement to bring in or send a draft.  

Additional Services

  • Short, free “Grammar-to-Go” clinics on specific writing topics, such as    understanding punctuation.
  • Five graduate-level writing clinics per term in the 2007-2008 regular session.
  • A library of writing guides and reference materials for writing across the disciplines.
  • Online writing resources, such as links, video clips, podcasts, and vodcasts. 

For more information, please visit the ULC Writing Help website