Unit Lead: Greg Malin
This unit focuses on the concepts and theoretical framework that the Clinician Educator (CE) will need in order to apply theory to their practice as a clinician educator and to implement the activities learned in other units. As well, it will equip the CE with the practical skills needed to perform an education consultation and to reflect on and plan for his or her own learning. This unit will also provide the CE with an orientation to the content and process of the full diploma program.
There are no prequisites for this unit.
This unit must be started first in the diploma program, although it may be taken simultaneously with other units. Candidates are not required to submit portfolio entries for this unit until all of the other units have been completed. However, the online module Foundations: Part 1 must be completed before any other units are started.
Competencies Addressed in this Unit
A CE must be able to:
- Explain and compare key theories and principles of medical education
- Develop a plan for lifelong learning in medical education
- Perform an effective education consultation
- Participate in a community of practice
- Official Royal College Requirements for Foundations Unit
- Check-in and check-out forms
- Personal Learning Plan Template
- Education Scenarios Reflection Document (to be completed at the END)
- Final Unit Report (to be filled by Unit Supervisor)
- Task List for Foundations Unit
- Reading List for Foundations Unit
- Link to the Royal College Brightspace (Webinar Modules for Foundations). You will need to register for the Foundations 1 self-study component of this unit by sending a request to: email@example.com
- This introductory portion of Unit 1 is mandatory before progressing though any other unit material. In your email, indicate that you require access to the online component of the Clinical Educator Diploma course. You will be sent a follow-up email once your registration is complete, with further instructions to access the learning environment. Indicate your preference for English or French.
- Demonstrate comprehension of key education theories, principles, and concepts, by
- describing and differentiating at least three education theoretical frameworks, e.g., constructivism, behaviourism, social constructivism, situated learning; development of expertise; development of competence
- outlining the applications to health professions education of the following concepts: adult learning “principles,” competency-based education, problem/task-based learning, community of practice, workplace learning, interprofessional education, societal responsiveness, reflective practice, and learner-centeredness
- describing the importance to medical education of the following: accreditation, student selection and admission, the education continuum, life-long learning, education innovation
- Demonstrate proficiency in education consultation, by
- performing an effective education consultation, including identifying the education problem, gathering appropriate data, making an education “diagnosis” and making recommendations, and when appropriate being involved in the education intervention or management of the education problem
- Demonstrate a commitment to professional development, by
- reflecting on and planning for ongoing learning in education, based on the candidate’s needs
- developing a philosophy of teaching and learning based on a theoretical framework
- identifying strategies to supplement or enhance the self assessment of learning needs
- Demonstrate involvement with a community of practice, by
identifying a group of interested individuals and engaging in a dialogue or activities related to mutual education interests
Reading Lists & Resources
- Consulting in MedEd – Case Deck
- Contains a number of educational scenarios where you consider the educational theory or conceptual frameworks that might help to address the problem.
- Kaufman, D.M. (2018). Teaching and Learning in Medical Education: How Theory Can Inform Practice. In Understanding Medical Education (eds T. Swanwick, K. Forrest and B.C. O'Brien).
- Provides a high-level overview of the role of theory in Med Ed and some examples of relevant theories.
- Bordage G. Conceptual Frameworks to illuminate and magnify. Medical Education 2009: 43: 312–319
- Similar approach as ICE Blog above but in an article form. Some examples have a research/scholarship focus, but you will likely be able to see the intersection.
- College of Medicine – Faculty Engagement – Preparing your Teaching Dossier and Teaching Philosophy
- Most relevant to this unit is the document that describes important considerations for writing your teaching philosophy which you will be doing in this unit.
- Davis DA, Mazmanian PE, Fordis M, Van Harrison R, Thorpe KE, Perrier L. Accuracy of Physician Self-assessment Compared With Observed Measures of Competence: A Systematic Review. 2006;296(9):1094–1102.
- White CB, Gruppen LD, PhD. Self-Assessment and Self-Regulated Learning. Association for the Study of Medical Education, editor. Edinburgh, UK.
- You will be engaging in reflection self-assessment throughout this program, and it is important to contextualize this and recognize the inherent challenges.
ICE Blog - International Clinician Educators Blog – Educational Theory Made Practical. Volumes 1-5
- Resource that presents key theories, concepts and/or frameworks that are relevant for medical education with practical examples built in to help see the application in context, and links to key references. Will be valuable for the Foundations unit but for your educator career beyond this course.
- You don’t need to read all of these and be familiar with all theories, but it will be a key resource for your activities in this unit
- See the following links for a more organized presentation of the content for Volumes 1-3 (Volumes 4-5 not yet available in this format)
Optional Readings & Resources
The remainder of the readings/resources below are optional and serve as a small reference list for common areas in medical education where there is a discussion of theory or conceptual frameworks that support the work presented in the article. The articles below are listed because they have led the way as good examples in that area. The list is not exhaustive. The theories and concepts provided in the ICE blog resource above will provide many more great examples. **Note: More and more, Med Ed journals are looking for authors to provide a discussion of theoretical underpinnings to support their work, so you might find that in your more current searches, that a discussion of theory is present.
- DR-ED: An electronic discussion group for medical educators (Michigan State University, Office of Medical Education Research and Development)
- KeyLIME: Key Literature in Medical Education
- Podcast released each week where the podcasters take one current journal article and break down the main concept, methods, and results of the paper. Theory is often part of the discussion.
Education theories, principles, and concepts
- Dornan T, Mann K, Scherpbier A, Spencer J, editors. Medical education: theory and practice. Edinburgh (UK): Churchill Livingstone / Elsevier; 2010. (Borrow it from the USask Faculty Development Library by contacting firstname.lastname@example.org)
- Mann K. Theoretical perspectives in medical education: past experience and future perspectives. Med Educ. 2011; 45:60-68.
Learning and Adult learning principles
- Issues in Cognitive Psychology: Implications for professional education. Regehr G, Normal GR. Acad Med 1996;71:988-1001
- Paas F, Renkl A, Sweller J. Cognitive Load Theory: Instructional implications of the Interaction between information structures and Cognitive Architecture. Instructional Science. 32: 1-8.
- Vygotsky LS. Mind in Society. Harvard University Press. 1978.
- Brown JS, Collins A, Duguid. Situated Cognition and the Culture of Learning. Educational Researcher. January-February. 32-42.
- Lave J, Wenger E. 1991. Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge University Press.
- Mezirow J. Learning as Transformation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. 2000.
- Knowles MS. The adult learner: a neglected species. 4th ed. Houston (TX): Gulf Publishing; 1990.
- Knowles S, Holton E, Swanson R. The adult learner: the definitive classic in adult education and human resource development. 5th Houston: Gulf Publishing. 1998.
- Norman GR. The adult learner: a mythical species. Acad Med. 1999;74(8):886–9.
Development of expertise, competence
- Ericsson KA. Deliberate practice and acquisition of expert performance: a general overview. Acad Emerg Med. 2008 Nov;15(11):988-94.
- Reznick RK, MacRae H. Teaching surgical skills--changes in the wind. N Engl J Med. 2006 Dec 21;355(25):2664-9.
- Dunphy BC, Williamson SL. In pursuit of expertise. Toward an educational model for expertise development. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2004;9(2):107-27.
- McGaghie W, Issenberg S, Cohen E, Barsuk J, Wayne D. Medical education featuring mastery learning with deliberate practice can lead to better health for individuals and populations. Acad Med. 2011 Nov;86(11):e8-9.
- Carraccio C, Wolfsthal SD, Englander R, Ferentz K, Martin C. Shifting paradigms: from Flexner to competencies. Acad Med. 2002;77(5):361–7.
- Frank JR, Snell LS, Cate OT, Holmboe ES, Carraccio C, Swing SR, et al. Competency-based medical education: theory to practice. Med Teach. 2010;32(8):638–45.
- Holmboe E, Snell L. Principles of Competency-Based Education: Better Preparing Residents for Practice. In Creating and Redesigning Curricula – a CanMEDS Guide for Clinical Education. Eds Sherbino J & Frank J. RCPSC, Ottawa, 2011.
- Hodges BD, Lingard L, editors. The question of competence: reconsidering medical education in the twenty-first century. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University Press; 2012.
- Albanese MA, et al. Defining characteristics of educational competencies. Med Ed.2008;42;248-255.
- Albanese M, Mejicano G, Gruppen L. ‘Competency-based medical education: A defense against the four horseman of the medical education apocalypse’. Acad Med. 2008; 83(12):1132-1139.
- Medical education and the tyranny of competence. Brooks MA. Perspect Biol Med. 2009;52:90-102.
- Colliver J. Effectiveness of problem-based learning curricula: research and theory. Academic Medicine 2000; 3: 259-266.
- Barrows H. Problem-based learning in medicine and beyond: A brief overview. New Directions for Teaching and Learning. 68:3–12, Winter 1996
- Hrynchak P, Batty H. The educational theory basis of team based learning. Med Teach, 34:10, 796-801, 2012.
- Alice Y. Kolb and David A. Kolb. Learning Styles and Learning Spaces: Enhancing Experiential Learning in Higher Education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 2005, 4(2)Jun:193-212
Community of practice
- Sherbino J, Snell L, Dath D, Dojeiji S, Abbott C, Frank JR. A national clinician-educator program: a model of an effective community of practice. Med Educ Online. 2010; Dec 6;15.
- Wenger E, McDermott R, Snyder W. Communities of practice and their value to organizations. In: Cultivating communities of practice. Boston: Harvard Business School Press; 2002. p. 1–47.
- Wenger E. Communities of Practice: Learning, meaning and identity. Cambridge University Press. 1998.
- Cox M, Richlin L. Building Faculty Learning Communities: New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 97. 2004.
- Cruess SR, Johnston S, Cruess RL. Professionalism for medicine: opportunities and obligations. Iowa Orthop J. 2004;24:9-14.
Reflective practiceSchon DA. Educating the reflective practitioner: toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 1987. (borrow it from the Faculty Development Library by contacting email@example.com)