Teaching & Learning
This unit focuses on competencies the Clinician Educator needs in order to be an effective teacher in multiple contexts in a manner appropriate to a range of learners, settings, and teaching media. The unit places emphasis on evidence-based teaching and current best practices to maximize engagement and learning.
The Foundations Unit is a co-requisite for this unit.
Competencies Addressed in this Unit
The CE must be able to:
- Teach effectively using different techniques within different contexts
- Provide effective feedback
- Official Royal College Requirements Document for Teaching and Learning Unit
- Check-in and check-out forms
- Final Unit Report (To be filled by Unit Supervisor)
- Task List for Teaching & Learning Unit
- Reading List (see below)
- Forms that need to be filled out this unit:
1. Teach effectively using at least three different instructional methods for different contexts (according to the candidate’s educational settings)
- clinical-based teaching
- large-group teaching
- workshop teaching
- small-group teaching
- one-on-one teaching
- procedural skills teaching
- other as appropriate
The candidate should be able to:
- describe the indications, advantages, and disadvantages of each selected method within the relevant educational contexts
- describe the theory or evidence for best practices relating to each method
- regularly incorporate best practices into his or her teaching
- discuss the common pitfalls of each selected method
- demonstrate how to incorporate the CanMEDS framework within his or her teaching
- use effective questioning techniques to foster learner engagement and effective learning
- develop a teaching plan for a planned learning activity
2. Demonstrate a reflective education practice, by
- describing the principles and importance of reflective practice
- applying the principles of reflective practice in his or teaching
3. Demonstrate awareness of faculty development issues by
- describing the unique challenges faced by teaching colleagues
- demonstrating the ability to skillfully facilitate groups of peers
4. Demonstrate comprehension of the principles of feedback, by
- describing the principles of good feedback
- incorporating best practices in feedback, including giving feedback in challenging settings (e.g., a learner in difficulty)
Please refer to the Task List for the Teaching & Learning Unit for a complete listing of the summative and formative assessments required for this unit. You will also need to collect a number of the following evaluations of your teaching to complete this unit's portfolio assessment.
Final Unit Report (to be filled in by Unit Supervisor)
- Lake FR. Teaching on the run tips: doctors as teachers. Med J Aust. 2004;180(8):415–6.
- Lake FR, Ryan G. Teaching on the run tips 2: educational guides for teaching in a clinical setting. Med J Aust. 2004;180(10):527–8.
- Lake FR, Ryan G. Teaching on the run tips 3: planning a teaching episode. Med J Aust. 2004;180(12):643–4.
- Lake FR, Ryan G. Teaching on the run tips 4: teaching with patients. Med J Aust. 2004;181(3):158–9.
- Lake FR, Hamdorf JM. Teaching on the run tips 5: teaching a skill. Med J Aust. 2004;181(6):327–8.
- Lake FR, Hamdorf JM. Teaching on the run tips 6: determining competence. Med J Aust. 2004;181(9):502–3.
- Lake FR, Vickery AW, Ryan G. Teaching on the run tips 7: effective use of questions. Med J Aust. 2005; 182(3):126–7.
- Lake FR, Ryan G. Teaching on the run tips 8: assessment and appraisal. Med J Aust. 2005;182(11):580–1.
- Lake FR. Teaching on the run tips 9: in-training assessment. Med J Aust. 2005;183(1):33–4.
- Vickery AW, Lake FR. Teaching on the run tips 10: giving feedback. Med J Aust. 2005;183(5):267–8.
- Lake FR, Ryan G. Teaching on the run tips 11: the junior doctor in difficulty. Med J Aust. 2005;183(9):475–6.
- Lake FR, Ryan G. Teaching on the run tips 12: planning for learning during clinical attachments. Med J Aust. 2006;184(5):238–9.
- Lake FR, Ryan G. Teaching on the run tips 13: being a good supervisor—preventing problems. Med J Aust. 2006;184(8):414–5.
- Lake FR, Vickery AW. Teaching on the run tips 14: Teaching in ambulatory care. Med J Aust. 2006;185(3):166-7.
- Irby DM. What clinical teachers in medicine need to know. Acad Med. 1994;69(5):333–42.
- Neher JO, Gordon KC, Meyer B, Stevens N. A five-step “microskills” model of clinical teaching. J Am Board Fam Pract. 1992;5(4):419–24.
- Pylman, Stacey, and Amy Ward. "12 tips for effective questioning in medical education." Medical teacher 42.12 (2020): 1330-1336.
- Sargeant J, Lockyer J, et al. Facilitated Reflective Performance Feedback: Developing an Evidence- and Theory-Based Model that Builds Relationship, Explores Reactions and Content, and Coaches for Performance Change (R2C2). Acad Med. 2015;90:1698–1706.
- Gousseau, Michael, Connor Sommerfeld, and Adrian Gooi. "Tips for using mobile audience response systems in medical education." Advances in medical education and practice 7 (2016): 647.
- Steinert Y, Snell L. Interactive lecturing: strategies for increasing participation in large group presentations. Med Teach. 1999;21(1):37–42.
- Mir, Mohammad Muzaffar, Mohammed Jeelani, and Mohammad Saeed Alshahrani. "A practical approach for successful small group teaching in medical schools with student centered curricula." Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism 7.3 (2019): 149.
- Srinivasan M, Li ST, Meyers FJ, Pratt DD, Collins JB, Braddock C, et al. “Teaching as a Competency”: competencies for medical educators. Acad Med. 2011:86(10):1211–20.
- Ericsson KA. Deliberate practice and the acquisition and maintenance of expert performance in medicine and related domains. Acad Med. 2004;79(10 suppl):S70–S81.
- Pinsky, Linda E., Dorinda Monson, and David M. Irby. "How excellent teachers are made: reflecting on success to improve teaching." Advances in health sciences education 3.3 (1998): 207-215.
- Mayer, Richard E., and Roxana Moreno. "Nine ways to reduce cognitive load in multimedia learning." Educational psychologist 38.1 (2003): 43-52.
- Heidenreich C, Lye P, Simpson D, Lourich M. The search for effective and efficient ambulatory teaching methods through the literature. Pediatrics. 2000;105 (1 Pt 3):231–7.
- Irby DM. Teaching and learning in ambulatory care settings: a thematic review of the literature. Acad Med. 1995;70(10):898–931.
- Hewson, Mariana G., and Margaret L. Little. "Giving feedback in medical education: verification of recommended techniques." Journal of general internal medicine 13.2 (1998): 111-116.
- Caldwell JE. Clickers in the classroom: current research and best-practice tips. CBE Life Sci Educ. 2007;6(1):9–20.
- Di Leonardi BC. Tips for facilitating learning: the lecture deserves some respect. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2007;38(4):154–63.
- Bandiera G, Lee S, Tiberius R. Creating effective learning in today’s emergency departments: how accomplished teachers get it done. Acad Emerg Med. 2005;45(3):253–61.
- Dent JA. AMEE Guide No 26: clinical teaching in ambulatory care settings: making the most of learning opportunities with outpatients: Med Teach. 2005;27(4):302–15.
- Reznick RK, MacRae H. Teaching surgical skills—changes in the wind. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(25):2664–9.
- Vaughn LM, Baker RC. Do different pairings of teaching styles and learning styles make a difference? Preceptor and resident perceptions. Teach Learn Med. 2008;20(3):239–47.
- Heen S, Stone D. Find the Coaching in Criticism. The right ways to receive feedback. Harvard Business Review. January-February 2014.
- Oakley, Barbara, Beth Rogowsky, and Terrence J. Sejnowski. Uncommon sense teaching: Practical insights in brain science to help students learn. Penguin, 2021. (borrow it from the USask Faculty Development Library by contacting email@example.com)
- Schreiber BE, Fukuta J, Gordon F. Live lecture versus video podcast in undergraduate medical education: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Med Educ. 2010;10:68.
- Cook DA. Where are we with Web-based learning in medical education? Med Teach. 2006;28(7):594–8.
- Johns C. Becoming a reflective practitioner: a reflective and holistic approach to clinical nursing, practice development and clinical supervision. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 2000.
- Schon DA. Educating the reflective practitioner: toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 1987. (borrow it from the USask Faculty Development Library by contacting firstname.lastname@example.org)
- Dojeiji S, Cooke L. The core: a tour of instructional methods for clinical education. In: Sherbino J, Frank JR, editors. Educational Design. Ottawa: Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada: 2011. p. 35–44.
- Thomas D, Brown JS. A new culture of learning: cultivating the imagination for a world of constant change. n.p.: CreateSpace: 2011. (borrow it from the USask Faculty Development Library by contacting email@example.com)
- A systematic review of faculty development initiatives designed to enhance teaching effectiveness: A 10-year update: BEME Guide No. 40 Yvonne Steinert, Karen Mann, Brownell Anderson, Bonnie Maureen Barnett, Angel Centeno, Laura Naismith, David Prideaux, John Spencer, Ellen Tullo, Thomas Viggiano, Helena Ward, and Diana Dolmans. Medical Teacher Vol. 38 , Iss. 8,2016
You can also check-out hard copies of resources the USask Faculty Development Library has available. Visit them here. For more information or to request a book, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org
We do our best to keep our reading lists up to date, however some articles may not always be relevant or accessible without permissions. If you find an article that is unavailable, please let your supervisor know. Please also let your supervisor know if you have suggestions for other resources.